Posts tagged ‘urologic cancers’
Although science and medicine have much in common, their practitioners are immersed in work that often appears to be worlds apart. Developing cures together — that is, translating science into meaningful, effective medical treatment — requires boundless creativity and perseverance.
This journey often starts when City of Hope’s scientists and clinicians share their recent discoveries and challenges in the lab and clinic. This open forum enables them to make new connections and consider possibilities for improving treatment for patients.
One such connection was made when Karen Aboody, M.D., professor of neurosciences and a renowned translational scientist, shared advances using neural stem cells to treat cancer with Jonathan Yamzon, M.D., a urologic oncologist who spends his days treating men in the clinic. Yamzon was intrigued by the potential of this science to target prostate cancer.
As a result, a team of researchers has embraced this promising new approach as a way to cure men. Yamzon and Aboody, along with Jacob Berlin, Ph.D., assistant professor of molecular medicine, and Jeremy Jones, Ph.D., assistant professor of molecular pharmacology, are now collaborating to bring neural stem cell therapy to men fighting prostate cancer — patients in urgent need of novel therapies for their disease.
Hormone therapy is the standard treatment for prostate cancer. The approach essentially starves cancer of testosterone, which the tumors need to grow and spread. But in many men, the cells mutate to produce testosterone on their own and keep growing, in effect becoming resistant to therapy. At this point, higher doses of chemotherapy may be effective, but would be too toxic to tolerate. This is where targeted neural stem cell therapy could step in. “We’re looking to treat patients who really don’t have any other options,” Yamzon said.
The treatment of urologic cancers, including bladder cancer, is rapidly evolving. Here, urologic oncologic surgeon and kidney stone specialist Donald Hannoun, M.D., an assistant clinical professor in the Division of Urology and Urologic Oncology at City of Hope | Antelope Valley, explains the changes in his field, as well as his approach to medicine.
Did someone or something from your early experience in life motivate you to go into medicine?
I’ve always loved working with people. I couldn’t think of a more altruistic field than medicine. What motivated me to get into urology was my late grandfather’s struggle with bladder stones, which are hard masses of minerals in the bladder. He was completely miserable before his surgery, and was then transformed into a new man after having them removed. To see such immediate results made me seriously consider urology. Now, I treat all types of genitourinary cancers, including kidney, bladder, prostate and testicular cancer.
Christine Crews isn’t only a fitness enthusiast, she’s also a personal trainer and fitness instructor. Being active defines her life. So when she was diagnosed with bladder cancer at age 30, she decided she absolutely couldn’t let the disease interfere with that lifestyle.
And it didn’t. For the next 15 years, Crews continued to run marathons, teach fitness classes and train 20 to 30 clients a week, all while fighting her bladder cancer with chemotherapy and periodic tumor removals.
Diagnostic errors are far from uncommon. In fact, a recent study found that they affect about 12 million people, or 1 in 20 patients, in the U.S. each year.
With cancer, those errors in diagnosis can have a profound impact. A missed or delayed diagnosis can make the disease that much harder to treat, as the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research recently noted in calling attention to the diagnostic errors research.
This means that patients who’ve been diagnosed with cancer shouldn’t always assume that either the diagnosis or their options are precisely what they’ve been told. Sometimes a cancer has progressed more than the diagnostic tests suggest; sometimes it’s progressed less. And sometimes the diagnosis is completely off-base.
Clayton S. Lau, M.D., associate clinical professor and an expert in testicular cancer surgery at City of Hope, explains the difference that second opinions can make in getting a proper cancer diagnosis and care. » Continue Reading
When Sheldon Querido, a retired manufacturer’s representative, was diagnosed with bladder cancer, his doctor told him that he’d need to have his bladder removed – and that he’d have to wear an external urine-collection bag for the rest of his life.
“My first response was ‘I don’t want to live like that,” Querido told ABC 7 in a recent interview. “That’s gonna be a terrible way to live.”
Querido simply couldn’t accept that collecting his urine externally was his only option. The Thousand Oaks resident and his wife decided to get a second opinion at City of Hope. There, they learned there was indeed another choice: an artificial bladder, called a neobladder, built by specialists at City of Hope. » Continue Reading
Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men 15 to 34 years old. Yet it accounts for only 1 percent of all cancers in men in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, about 8,800 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer each year, and about 380 men die of the disease. However, if detected early, the disease has an overall five-year survival rate of 96 percent. For Stage 1 patients, the five-year survival rate is an astonishing 99 percent.
Here, urologist Jonathan Yamzon, M.D., assistant clinical professor and surgeon in City of Hope’s Division of Urology and Urologic Oncology, discusses how early detection and the use of advanced treatment options can help cure men of this rare disease and allow them to lead healthy, normal lives.
What is testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer occurs when cells in the testicles grow and multiply uncontrollably, damaging surrounding tissue and interfering with the normal function of the testicle. If the disease spreads, it is still called testicular cancer.
The most common types of testicular cancer form in germ cells, where sperm is made. They fall into two categories: seminomas and nonseminomas. Seminomas are slow-growing and tend to stay within the testicle. Nonseminomas are faster-growing, tend to spread outside the testicle and strike younger men. More than 90 percent of testicular cancers begin in the germ cells. » Continue Reading
Cancer of the prostate is the No. 2 cancer killer of men, behind lung cancer, accounting for more than 29,000 deaths annually in this country. But because prostate cancer advances slowly, good prostate health and early detection can make all the difference.
Many prostate cancer tumors don’t require immediate treatment because they’re small, confined and slow-growing. For patients with these type of tumors, so-called “watchful waiting,” increasingly known as “active surveillance” may be the best course of action. In “active surveillance,” physicians closely monitor patients so they can identify early signs of disease progression and treat the cancer before it spreads outside the prostate.
Here, Philip G. Pearson, M.D., and David W. Rhodes, M.D., of City of Hope | Pasadena, provide simple strategies that can help men better understand this important gland. They also explain why active surveillance is becoming a more common prostate cancer management option. » Continue Reading
“One day I had a pain in my side and ended up having my appendix rupture. During that time of the appendix rupturing, they discovered I had a large tumor covering most of my kidney,” said Joelle Hood, a learning center principal and a certified life coach.
Hood’s doctor referred her to City of Hope, where she met urologic oncology specialist Clayton Lau, M.D., an assistant clinical professor. They discussed the best treatment option for her cancer and took it day by day from there.
Many cancer incidence rates decline over time, but kidney cancer is one of the few cancers with incidence rates that continue to rise year after year.
Currently, nearly 64,000 new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year, and approximately 13,860 people die from it, according to the American Cancer Society. Men are much more likely than women to be diagnosed with the disease and to die from it.
But unlike other cancers, there is no formalized way to detect kidney cancer, which is why it’s important to know the disease’s risk factors and symptoms. Here Sumanta Kumar Pal, M.D., co-director of the Kidney Cancer Program at City of Hope, explores both the factors behind the rise in kidney cancer and the disease’s current treatments.
While most cancer incident rates continue to drop each year, kidney cancer is one of the few that continue to increase. Why is this?
Unlike breast cancer or colon cancer, kidney cancer is a disease for which we have no good screening modalities. At the moment, there’s no formalized way to actually detect kidney cancer before the onset of the disease. But as time has gone on, our imaging modalities have gotten better and better — what I’m referring to here are CT scans and MRIs — and as that happened, we’ve found more and more incidental diagnosis of kidney cancer. » Continue Reading