Posts tagged ‘urologic cancers’
Diagnostic errors are far from uncommon. In fact, a recent study found that they affect about 12 million people, or 1 in 20 patients, in the U.S. each year.
With cancer, those errors in diagnosis can have a profound impact. A missed or delayed diagnosis can make the disease that much harder to treat, as the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research recently noted in calling attention to the diagnostic errors research.
This means that patients who’ve been diagnosed with cancer shouldn’t always assume that either the diagnosis or their options are precisely what they’ve been told. Sometimes a cancer has progressed more than the diagnostic tests suggest; sometimes it’s progressed less. And sometimes the diagnosis is completely off-base.
Clayton S. Lau, M.D., associate clinical professor and an expert in testicular cancer surgery at City of Hope, explains the difference that second opinions can make in getting a proper cancer diagnosis and care. » Continue Reading
When Sheldon Querido, a retired manufacturer’s representative, was diagnosed with bladder cancer, his doctor told him that he’d need to have his bladder removed – and that he’d have to wear an external urine-collection bag for the rest of his life.
“My first response was ‘I don’t want to live like that,” Querido told ABC 7 in a recent interview. “That’s gonna be a terrible way to live.”
Querido simply couldn’t accept that collecting his urine externally was his only option. The Thousand Oaks resident and his wife decided to get a second opinion at City of Hope. There, they learned there was indeed another choice: an artificial bladder, called a neobladder, built by specialists at City of Hope. » Continue Reading
Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men 15 to 34 years old. Yet it accounts for only 1 percent of all cancers in men in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, about 8,800 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer each year, and about 380 men die of the disease. However, if detected early, the disease has an overall five-year survival rate of 96 percent. For Stage 1 patients, the five-year survival rate is an astonishing 99 percent.
Here, urologist Jonathan Yamzon, M.D., assistant clinical professor and surgeon in City of Hope’s Division of Urology and Urologic Oncology, discusses how early detection and the use of advanced treatment options can help cure men of this rare disease and allow them to lead healthy, normal lives.
What is testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer occurs when cells in the testicles grow and multiply uncontrollably, damaging surrounding tissue and interfering with the normal function of the testicle. If the disease spreads, it is still called testicular cancer.
The most common types of testicular cancer form in germ cells, where sperm is made. They fall into two categories: seminomas and nonseminomas. Seminomas are slow-growing and tend to stay within the testicle. Nonseminomas are faster-growing, tend to spread outside the testicle and strike younger men. More than 90 percent of testicular cancers begin in the germ cells. » Continue Reading
Cancer of the prostate is the No. 2 cancer killer of men, behind lung cancer, accounting for more than 29,000 deaths annually in this country. But because prostate cancer advances slowly, good prostate health and early detection can make all the difference.
Many prostate cancer tumors don’t require immediate treatment because they’re small, confined and slow-growing. For patients with these type of tumors, so-called “watchful waiting,” increasingly known as “active surveillance” may be the best course of action. In “active surveillance,” physicians closely monitor patients so they can identify early signs of disease progression and treat the cancer before it spreads outside the prostate.
Here, Philip G. Pearson, M.D., and David W. Rhodes, M.D., of City of Hope | Pasadena, provide simple strategies that can help men better understand this important gland. They also explain why active surveillance is becoming a more common prostate cancer management option. » Continue Reading
“One day I had a pain in my side and ended up having my appendix rupture. During that time of the appendix rupturing, they discovered I had a large tumor covering most of my kidney,” said Joelle Hood, a learning center principal and a certified life coach.
Hood’s doctor referred her to City of Hope, where she met urologic oncology specialist Clayton Lau, M.D., an assistant clinical professor. They discussed the best treatment option for her cancer and took it day by day from there.
Many cancer incidence rates decline over time, but kidney cancer is one of the few cancers with incidence rates that continue to rise year after year.
Currently, nearly 64,000 new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year, and approximately 13,860 people die from it, according to the American Cancer Society. Men are much more likely than women to be diagnosed with the disease and to die from it.
But unlike other cancers, there is no formalized way to detect kidney cancer, which is why it’s important to know the disease’s risk factors and symptoms. Here Sumanta Kumar Pal, M.D., co-director of the Kidney Cancer Program at City of Hope, explores both the factors behind the rise in kidney cancer and the disease’s current treatments.
While most cancer incident rates continue to drop each year, kidney cancer is one of the few that continue to increase. Why is this?
Unlike breast cancer or colon cancer, kidney cancer is a disease for which we have no good screening modalities. At the moment, there’s no formalized way to actually detect kidney cancer before the onset of the disease. But as time has gone on, our imaging modalities have gotten better and better — what I’m referring to here are CT scans and MRIs — and as that happened, we’ve found more and more incidental diagnosis of kidney cancer. » Continue Reading
Treatments for kidney cancer have improved dramatically over the past few years — particularly for renal cell carcinoma, the most common type of kidney cancer. And the future looks bright as well.
The Food and Drug Administration has approved seven new drugs for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, especially significant because it approved only one drug between 1992 and 2005. Further, targeted therapies are improving standard care for patients with the disease, and several promising studies could lead to new treatment advances.
Sumanta Kumar Pal, M.D., co-director of the Kidney Cancer Program at City of Hope, summed up the field in a recent interview with OncLive. “This is so incredibly promising for patients and their families,” he said of the recent developments.
But, as with most cancer treatments, new, innovative approaches are always needed. » Continue Reading
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer affecting men, with one in six American men receiving the diagnosis in their lifetime. In most cases, the disease grows slowly and causes no problems. But some prostate cancers are fast-moving and lethal, causing more than 29,000 deaths annually because the disease wasn’t detected and treated in time.
Here Jennifer Linehan, M.D., a surgeon on City of Hope’s renowned urology and urologic oncology program team, clears up confusion about using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen for the disease, and how technology plays a role in some of the newest advanced prostate cancer treatment options available.
Cells govern their internal processes through highly complex signaling systems. A recent City of Hope study published in the journal Science Signaling shed more light on how cells control this system — and how diabetes can cause a malfunction that leads to kidney disease.
The study’s senior author, Rama Natarajan, Ph.D., director of the Division of Molecular Diabetes Research at City of Hope, explained the science published in their paper, “TGF-β Induces Acetylation of Chromatin and of Ets-1 to Alleviate Repression of miR-192 in Diabetic Nephropathy.”
What’s the main finding of this study?
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered small, noncoding RNAs that have been shown to affect the expression of genes and play pivotal roles in physiological and pathological processes. However, the mechanisms by which miRNAs are regulated are not fully understood. » Continue Reading