Posts tagged ‘cancer research’
Counter-intuitive though it might seem, a prostate cancer diagnosis shouldn’t always lead to immediate prostate cancer treatment.
Although prostate cancer is the second-leading cancer killer of men, behind lung cancer, and causes more than 29,000 deaths in the U.S. each year, in many cases, the tumors are small, slow-growing and confined. That means that most prostate cancer tumors might not automatically warrant medical intervention.
“Active surveillance,” in which physicians closely monitor patients so they can identify early signs of disease progression, is emerging as the best course of action for many men with prostate cancer. The strategy enables doctors to treat cancer before it becomes a serious threat, while avoiding unnecessary risk by treating tumors unlikely to spread. » Continue Reading
Scientists have long searched for ways to bolster the immune system to fight diseases that seem to evade it, including cancer.
Many have focused on monoclonal antibodies, trying to use them as trucks to drop off payloads of drugs right at the site of an infection or tumor. The problem, however, has been welding the payload to the truck. While analyzing the structure of these antibodies, City of Hope scientists discovered a “hitch” – a hole in the center of the antibody’s structure, and a peptide that fits cleanly and easily into it.
This universal “hitch” – named a meditope by John C. Williams, Ph.D., and his research team that discovered it – has the potential to arm the immune system against cancer as well as other diseases.
Williams says his team is still exploring the applications but that the discovery has the potential to dramatically change oncology, radiology and other disciplines. Because the peptide can easily link to therapeutic molecules and hitch them to antibodies, the use for meditopes goes beyond cancer. Some of the diseases Williams and his team have considered so far include rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and macular degeneration.
This video explains how Williams and his team discovered the meditope.
Chemotherapy is a major tool in the fight against cancer. This method of using drugs to destroy cancer cells has successfully treated many patients. Yet while chemotherapy has been proven to effectively attack cancer cells, it can cause serious side effects that can severely impact a patient’s quality of life.
Here M. Houman Fekrazad, M.D., an associate clinical professor of medical oncology at City of Hope | Antelope Valley, discusses ongoing research, including a new chemotherapy patch he is currently developing. Such research has considerable promise not only to increase chemotherapy’s efficacy, but to reduce the toxic side effects that often accompany this form of treatment.
How does chemotherapy work? Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells. At the same time, it can damage normal healthy cells of the human body, such as those in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, nerves, hair or the lining of your mouth and intestines. Damage to healthy cells may cause side effects. Most are temporary while the patient is on treatment. However, long-term side effects of chemotherapy need to be discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy.
You own a patent on a patch that can deliver chemotherapy through the skin. Can you tell us more? Sure. By today’s standards, there has only been two ways to administer anti-cancer drugs – intravenously (IV) and orally. In this project (which is still in the planning stages), we aim to put chemotherapy into nanoparticles and then pass it through the skin. The chemotherapy will then be released in the bloodstream to target the cancer cells. There are several issues that can potentially be eliminated when chemotherapy is administered through the skin. For example: » Continue Reading
A quarter of children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL, are tripling their risk of a relapse because they are missing too many doses of an essential maintenance medication, according to findings from a recent City of Hope study .
The research, published in the journal Blood, also reports maintenance medication adherence was lower in minority groups. About 46 percent of African-American children and 28 percent of Asian children are not taking enough doses to prevent relapse, compared with 14 percent of white children.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a cancer of the white blood cells, is the most common form of childhood cancer. While more than 95 percent of children with ALL enter remission within a month of receiving initial cancer therapy, one in five will relapse. Additionally, relapsed disease is often harder to treat and may involve costlier, most toxic therapies.
In order to remain cancer-free, children in ALL remission must take a form of oral chemotherapy, called 6-mercaptopurine(6MP), every day for two years to protect against the disease coming back.
Despite 6MP’s proven benefit, previous studies have suggested pediatric ALL patients have difficulty taking it consistently. Other studies reported survival rates vary greatly among racial groups – prompting investigators to begin studying race-specific patterns of adherence in children with ALL.
“While we don’t yet know why children of different races have significantly different survival rates for ALL, we know that their adherence to their maintenance medication is a critical factor in their survival,” said first author Smita Bhatia, M.D., M.P.H. “With this in mind, we sought to explore the potential linkages that may exist between several key race-specific sociodemographics of these children and their adherence to 6MP.”
Bhatia, who is also the Ruth Ziegler Chair in Population Sciences, and her team began their research studying differences in medication adherence among different racial groups of children in remission from ALL in 2012, reporting that Hispanic children did not follow their prescribed maintenance regimen as consistently as non-Hispanic whites. » Continue Reading
Results from a large-scale study found that four commonly-prescribed drug regimens are equally effective for most types of colorectal cancer. The findings were presented during the plenary session at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s annual meeting.
The researchers reported that, for metastatic colorectal cancer patients who do not have a KRAS 12/13 gene mutation, nearly identical results were seen from taking chemotherapy with either bevacizumab (trade name Avastin) or cetuximab (trade name Erbitux).
According to Marwan Fakih, M.D., director of City of Hope’s gastrointestinal medical oncology program, these results mean that patients and their doctors can choose a regimen based on other factors — such as side effects — without having to worry about a reduction in effectiveness.
“For now, this report’s message is simple: no change in standard practice in the United States,” said Fakih, who is not involved in this study.
For this federally funded phase III clinical trial, more than 1,100 metastatic colorectal cancer patients are randomized to receive one targeted therapy (bevacizumab or cetuximab) and one chemotherapy combination (FOLFIRI or FOLFOX). The researchers hypothesized that bevacizumab and cetuximab may have varied in efficacy due to their different mechanisms of action. Bevacizumab prevents tumor growth and spreads by blocking the formation of new blood vessels while cetuximab works by inhibiting a growth factor that is used for cancer cells’ uncontrolled division.
After patient follow-ups and data evaluation, the researchers found that there were no significant differences between the bevacizumab+chemotherapy and cetuximab+chemotherapy groups in either overall survival (29 months versus 29.9 months, respectively) or progression-free survival (10.8 versus 10.4 months, respectively.)
Although comprehensive cancer centers — including City of Hope — are recognized by the National Cancer Institute for their robust clinical care, research and education programs, patients have had little way to compare those centers’ outcomes and patient populations against other facilities’. Until now.
This question is addressed in a new City of Hope study which found that receiving cancer care at a comprehensive cancer center does indeed improve survival. The study also found that multiple factors — including ethnicity, insurance type and socioeconomic status — can affect a person’s likelihood of being treated at a comprehensive cancer center.
The abstract of the study will be presented on June 2 by Julie Wolfson, M.D., M.S.H.S., assistant professor of City of Hope’s Department of Pediatrics and Department of Population Sciences, at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s annual meeting in Chicago.
“To be designated as a comprehensive cancer center, an institution has to go through a rigorous approval process to ensure its quality in diagnosis, treatment, research and education,” Wolfson said. “However, there have not been any studies on treatment site’s effect on survival outcomes or demographic factors that can impact where a patient goes for treatment.”
To investigate this topic, Wolfson and her colleagues analyzed data from more than 53,000 cancer patients in the Los Angeles County cancer registry from 1998 to 2008. Of this patient population, approximately 7 percent were treated at a comprehensive cancer center; the team compared this subset against patients treated in other settings to determine whether there were any significant differences in demographics and overall survival. » Continue Reading
Cancer can affect a person at any age, with the disease often considered one of aging. But increased age isn’t always linked to an increased risk of death. City of Hope researchers have found that, when it comes to breast cancer, younger women are more likely to die than their older counterparts.
That research will be presented on June 2 by Julie Wolfson, M.D., M.S.H.S., assistant professor of City of Hope’s Department of Pediatrics and Department of Population Sciences, in an abstract at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s annual meeting in Chicago.
“Adolescents and young adults are documented to have poorer cancer outcomes, but no one has studied outcome differences for cancers that are typical in young adults, including breast cancer,” Wolfson said.
In their research, Wolfson and her colleagues analyzed data on more than 67,000 patients from the Los Angeles County cancer registry from 1998 to 2008, including almost 6,000 from the young adult age group (22 to 39 years old). They then looked at overall survival and mortality rates for the seven cancers most common in young adults (breast, liver, lung, colorectal, gastric, cervical and oral).
After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics (such as stage of cancer and race/ethnicity), the researchers found that younger women with breast cancer have worse outcomes than older women with breast cancer. In their analysis, the mortality rate for this group was 10 to 30 percent higher than that of older women (40 to 65 years old). » Continue Reading
Missing an occasional dose of medicine may not seem like a big deal, but for kids with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can have dire consequences. Now City of Hope researchers have assessed the factors that can contribute to so-called medication non-adherence. One of their more surprising discoveries: Having multiple adults involved with administering medication actually lowers the likelihood that kids will take the drugs as they should.
The results will be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting on June 1.
“ALL is a highly treatable cancer, but patients need to take ongoing oral chemotherapy for two years after the initial remission to reduce likelihood of relapses,” said Smita Bhatia, M.D., M.P.H., senior author of the study and the Ruth Ziegler Chair in Population Sciences at City of Hope. “By identifying factors linked to non-adherence, we can identify at-risk patients and intervene to ensure that they stay on track with the medication schedule.”
City of Hope researchers had already found that not non-adherence to medication regimens can triple a patient’s risk of relapse. They also knew that almost half of pediatric ALL patients don’t take their medication as they should. Understanding the reasons for such non-adherence is a first step in reducing the risk of relapse.
In their new analysis, Bhatia, Wendy Landier, Ph.D., R.N., assistant professor in the Department of Population Sciences, and their colleagues studied 462 pediatric ALL patients taking maintenance oral chemotherapy. Using a combination of questionnaires, demographic data and devices that track when the drug bottles were opened, the researchers found that the following factors are associated with non-adherence: » Continue Reading
For patients with BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer, the experimental drug ABT-888 — also known as veliparib — is showing promise as a treatment, according to phase II clinical trial results that will be reported at the upcoming annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
“Normal cells use an enzyme called PolyADP ribose polymerases (PARP) to repair DNA damage, but cancer cells can exploit PARP to resist DNA-damaging radiation and chemotherapy,” explained Somlo. “Because veliparib works by blocking this protein, we wanted to see whether it has any benefit against breast cancer.”
Somlo and Jeffrey Weitzel, M.D., director of City of Hope’s Division of Clinical Cancer Genetics, focused on BRCA-related breast cancer because the associated genes also code for DNA repair proteins. BRCA gene dysfunctions already compromise the cancer’s ability to self-repair, so an additional knockout of PARP enzymes may induce cancer cells to self-destruct or render them especially susceptible to DNA-damaging therapies. » Continue Reading
The news for pancreatic cancer is admittedly not good. Although overall cancer death rates continue to decline in the United States, pancreatic cancer is one of the few cancers with death rates projected to continue to rise in the next 15 years.
That’s why research is crucial. That’s why City of Hope is crucial.
By 2030, pancreatic cancer is expected to become the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, surpassing breast, prostate and colorectal cancers, according to a new study published this week in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Liver cancer will be the third-leading cause of cancer-related death, researchers predicted.
Lung cancer is currently the No. 1 cause of cancer-related death in the United States and will maintain that distinction, according to the report. (City of Hope’s Dan Raz, M.D., co-director of the Lung Cancer and Thoracic Oncology Program, has much to say on how to save lives from lung cancer, specifically through lung cancer screening.)
As for pancreatic cancer, Joseph Kim, M.D., City of Hope surgical oncologist and head of upper gastrointestinal surgery, says researchers and physicians are working to change the grim outlook for such diseases. » Continue Reading