Posts tagged ‘cancer prevention’
People with a family history of cancer often want, or need, to know whether they have a gene mutation linked to that cancer. For that, they seek genetic testing, involving a blood sample that is analyzed for specific gene abnormalities.
Thomas Slavin, M.D., a geneticist and assistant clinical professor at City of Hope, typically works with patients – primarily breast, ovarian or colorectal cancer patients – who have a hereditary predisposition to cancer. Most are part of City of Hope’s large Hereditary Cancer Registry and are working with a genetic counselor. Slavin, the counselor and the patient use the patient’s history and genetic information to inform testing and make treatment plans.
Here, Slavin explains why he chose such a complex and rapidly involving field.
Why did you choose the field of genetic testing?
It has been an interest of mine since I was very young. When I was in middle school, I wrote to the American Society of Human Genetics requesting information about careers in genetics because I’ve always found it intriguing that one little mutation in a single gene can be life-changing for a family. After pursuing residencies in both pediatrics and medical genetics and completing a board certification in molecular diagnosis, I became particularly interested in the rapid advances in genetics sequencing and the newfound ability to make detailed molecular diagnoses on individuals. » Continue Reading
Stopping cancer starts with research. To that end, STOP CANCER has awarded $525,000 in grants to City of Hope for 2015, supporting innovative research projects and recognizing the institution’s leadership in advancing cancer treatment and prevention.
Founded in 1988, STOP CANCER underwrites the work of leading-edge scientists. The organization’s grants provide initial support for new and established researchers, giving their work exposure that can lead to additional funding and major advancements in fighting cancers.
Three faculty members received Research Career Development awards that will provide $50,000 in funding for three years, totaling $150,000 each:
- Mark Boldin, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, received an award for his research on lymphoma and microRNA biology. Boldin’s research group is investigating the role of microRNAs in the regulation of inflammation and cancer.
- Thomas Slavin, M.D., assistant clinical professor of the Division of Clinical Cancer Genetics, received an award to study the genetics of pancreatic and gastric cancers under the mentorship of cancer geneticists Jeffrey Weitzel, M.D., director of the division, and Susan Neuhausen, Ph.D., The Morris & Horowitz Families Professor in Cancer Etiology & Outcomes Research and co-leader of City of Hope’s Cancer Control and Population Sciences Program. Slavin will examine the genotypes of individuals with pancreatic and gastric cancers to look for hereditary markers that could be used to determine hereditary cancer risk.
- Yuan Yuan, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of the Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research, received the Margie and Robert E. Peterson Foundation Research Career Development Award to study novel therapeutics to overcome therapy resistance in breast cancer. Yuan’s research project will focus on an arginine-depleting enzyme utilizing breast cancer cell lines.
With this week’s World Cancer Day challenging us to think about cancer on a global scale, we should also keep in mind that daily choices affect cancer risk on an individual scale. Simply put, lifestyle changes and everyday actions can reduce your cancer risk and perhaps prevent some cancers.
According to the World Cancer Research Fund, about a third of the most common cancers could be prevented through reduced alcohol consumption, healthier diets and improved physical activity levels. If smoking were also eliminated, that number could jump to as many as half of all common cancers.
Here are a few suggestions. Truly, they’re not that difficult. Give them a try this week to mark World Cancer Day, Feb. 4, Try them the next week too. And the week after that …
In a word, exercise. Simple exercise benefits everyone, and even a little helps. Leslie Bernstein, Ph.D., professor and director of the Division of Cancer Etiology at City of Hope, recommends a 45-minute walk five days a week. While that is ideal, her research has found that, for some people, even 30 minutes per week can make a difference. The benefit of exercise applies for people of all weights and fitness levels.
The American Cancer Society recommends 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of high intensity exercise each week, preferably spread throughout the week. Don’t deny yourself the benefits just because you don’t have a large block of time or can’t get into the gym for a more formal workout. » Continue Reading
The American Cancer Society’s annual statistics show the death rate from cancer in the U.S. is down significantly from its peak more than a decade ago – certainly a reason to celebrate. But before the kudos give way to complacency, be forewarned: A number of increasingly serious public health issues could send cancer deaths and cancer incidence climbing again.
That’s the sobering perspective provided by City of Hope’s provost and chief scientific officer, Steven T. Rosen, M.D.
He added some context to the annual statistical analysis from the American Cancer Society. That analysis found that the death rate from cancer has dropped 22 percent from its peak in 1991; amounting to about 1.5 million deaths from cancer avoided. Between 2007 and 2011 – the most recent five years with data available – new cancer cases dropped by 1.8 percent per year in men and stayed the same in women. Cancer deaths decreased 1.8 percent per year in men and 1.4 percent in women for that same period of time.
Rosen attributed the overall decline in deaths to a number of factors, namely prevention, early detection and better therapies. » Continue Reading
Surgery for bladder cancer isn’t what it used to be; it’s better – much better. Advances in robotic surgeries have greatly improved both the options and the quality of life for people diagnosed with bladder cancer.
These advances, which are constantly giving way to even newer ones, mean that the entire bladder doesn’t always have to be removed. When it does, not only can highly skilled surgeons sometimes create an artificial bladder, they can even create an internal reservoir (different from a bladder and known as an Indiana pouch) using the large intestine and part of the small intestine. Such alternatives are usually preferred over the need for an external bag to collect the urine.
Much work remains, however, in the understanding of bladder cancer. Sumanta Pal, M.D., co-director of the Kidney Cancer Program at City of Hope, is leading several innovative studies in bladder cancer, with two of them focusing on what’s known as a molecular selection process. » Continue Reading
Celebrating the holidays with family and friends can be festive, but most of us definitely overeat. The average Thanksgiving meal is close to 3,000 calories – well above the average daily recommendation of 2,000 calories.
Here, we serve up some tips from City of Hope dietitians Dhvani Bhatt and Denise Ackerman to bring healthier options to the traditional Thanksgiving meal. We also offer updates on classic side dishes and desserts, tested by City of Hope dietitians, that use seasonal vegetables and fruits, herbs, egg whites and spices to minimize the need for butter, salt and cream.
September is Prostate Cancer Awareness Month. Here, Bertram Yuh, M.D., assistant clinical professor in the Division of Urology and Urologic Oncology at City of Hope, explains the importance of understanding the risk factors for the disease and ways to reduce those risks, as well as overall prostate health.
“What are my prostate cancer risks?” That’s becoming a more common, and increasingly important, question.
A lot of men wonder what can be done to prevent or reduce their risk of prostate cancer. The good news is, there’s a lot of research being conducted in this area regarding risks and influencing factors.
We already know there are racial predilections, such as that African-American men are more likely to get prostate cancer and that, when they’re diagnosed, the cancer tends to be more aggressive. We also know that prostate cancer is less common in Asian-American and Hispanic men.
Further, while prostate cancer is certainly more common in older men, there is some recent clinical literature that states prostate cancer in younger men can be more aggressive. It is quite possible for a 47-year-old and a 77-year-old to have prostate cancers that behave differently.
I can’t treat every patient the same way just because their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or Gleason grades look the same. In my role as a urology oncologist, I need to look at the whole patient.
With Labor Day just around the corner, summer is on its way out. But just because summertime is ending doesn’t mean we can skip sunscreen. Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is needed all year round. Exposure to UV radiation — whether from the sun or from artificial sources such as sunlamps used in tanning beds — increases the risk of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer.
Here, Jae Jung, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor in dermatology at City of Hope, shares simple prevention tips to lower the risk of melanoma. She also explains that the disease is almost always curable if detected and treated in its earliest stages.
What is melanoma and what causes it?
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer. It arises from melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in our skin. They are most common in sun-exposed areas of the skin, but can arise anywhere including under the fingernails, oral or genital mucosa, and eyes.
Melanoma is usually caused by too much UV exposure, either from natural sun or in tanning booths. Use of tanning beds can increase your risk of melanoma by 75 percent. Patients with fair skin, light hair and eyes, have a propensity to sunburn and are at higher risk of developing melanoma. Patients with many moles (greater than 50), atypical moles, and a family history of melanoma are also at increased risk. » Continue Reading
Cancer of the prostate is the No. 2 cancer killer of men, behind lung cancer, accounting for more than 29,000 deaths annually in this country. But because prostate cancer advances slowly, good prostate health and early detection can make all the difference.
Many prostate cancer tumors don’t require immediate treatment because they’re small, confined and slow-growing. For patients with these type of tumors, so-called “watchful waiting,” increasingly known as “active surveillance” may be the best course of action. In “active surveillance,” physicians closely monitor patients so they can identify early signs of disease progression and treat the cancer before it spreads outside the prostate.
Here, Philip G. Pearson, M.D., and David W. Rhodes, M.D., of City of Hope | Pasadena, provide simple strategies that can help men better understand this important gland. They also explain why active surveillance is becoming a more common prostate cancer management option. » Continue Reading
According to the National Cancer Institute, getting colonoscopies at recommended intervals (for most people, this means starting at age 50 and every 10 years thereafter if the results are normal) can reduce colorectal cancer deaths by up to 70 percent. This is possible because the procedure can catch the cancer in its earlier stages, when it’s more treatable. Additionally, colonoscopies can detect and remove precancerous growths called polyps before they become malignant.
Despite the proven benefits, many people still put off getting a colonoscopy. Data from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that 40 percent of Americans are not getting screened for colorectal cancer in accordance to recommended guidelines.
And according to Donald David, M.D., clinical professor and chief at City of Hope’s Division of Gastroenterology, many reasons people have for delaying or avoiding this lifesaving test are pure myths.