Posts tagged ‘cancer’
Cancer may not be the disease many people think it is.
Normally, cancer is considered to be a disease in which cells multiply at an extremely high, and unusual, rate – increasing the likelihood of genetic mutations. But increasingly, leading researchers at City of Hope and elsewhere are contending that cancer is, in large part, a disease of cell movement and so-called seeding.
If you’re looking for a culprit, they say, look to cancer cells’ microenvironment. That environment – with its fostering of cell accumulation and growth – likely encourages tumors to form. By looking at cancer in this revolutionary way, they hope to develop new and better treatments for a disease that continues to take far too high a toll.
To detect melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, at its earliest, most treatable stage, conduct a head-to-toe skin self-examination once a month to check for suspicious moles.
Unusual, or atypical, moles can ultimately develop into skin cancer. Here is the ABCDE guide to potentially cancerous moles:
A = Asymmetry
The two halves of the mole do not match when you draw a line through the middle.
B = Border
The mole has an uneven border.
C = Color
The mole has multiple shades of tan, brown or black or has unusual colors such as red, purple or blue.
D = Diameter
The mole is larger than 6mm in diameter (or the size of a pencil eraser).
E = Evolution
The mole has changed in size, shape or color over time.
If you have a suspicious mole, contact your primary care doctor or a dermatologist for further evaluation. For more information about melanoma and other types of skin cancer, visit www.cityofhope.org/skin-cancer.
Sources: American Cancer Society and Skin Cancer Foundation
Feel free to reproduce our skin cancer infographic for health and education purposes. Download the PDF.
Learn more about becoming a patient or getting a second opinion by visiting our website or by calling 800-826-HOPE (4673). You may also request a new patient appointment online. City of Hope staff will explain what’s required for a consult at City of Hope and help you determine, before you come in, whether or not your insurance will pay for the appointment.
The two hadn’t been in contact with each other for some time, but McKinny couldn’t think of anyone else with whom he wanted to be during that difficult period. He knew he had to find Mullins.
That proved more challenging than McKinny had imagined. Even with the help of the Internet and social media networking sites, McKinny wasn’t able to locate and communicate with his former boyfriend.
There was little left for McKinny to do but continue with his treatment on his own, as best he could. After his doctors in Hemet, California, told him there was nothing else they could do for him, he was transferred to City of Hope. At that time, his prognosis suggested he had but two months to live. Fortunately, because of City of Hope, that prognosis proved to be too grim.
In March 2011, McKinny had a stem cell transplant at City of Hope, which gave him more time with his family and friends, not to mention additional time to find Mullins. Finally, in 2013, three years after his diagnosis, McKinny located Mullins. They connected. The two have been inseparable ever since. » Continue Reading
Investigators working at City of Hope are making many significant inroads against many forms of cancer. To do that, they have to take a variety of approaches.
Molecular oncology researchers focus on abnormal cancer-associated activity in a cell’s nucleus. One especially prominent factor in many breast and ovarian cancers is the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. When BRCA1 activity is compromised, cells cannot properly repair breaks in chromosomal DNA, which encourages the accumulation of even more cancer-causing mutations. In short, this increases a woman’s risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.
In one study published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Jeremy Stark, Ph.D., associate professor of the Department of Radiation Biology, reported that biologically speaking, two wrongs can make a right. Stark inactivated factors in a signaling pathway called 53BP1/RNF168 and found that intervention blocked lethal failure in DNA repair caused by mutations in the BRCA1 gene. » Continue Reading
Cancer patients need, and deserve, more than medical care. They and their families need high-quality supportive care – that is, care that addresses their physical, emotional and spiritual well-being. Health care professionals increasingly understand this, but starting such programs from scratch isn’t easy. That’s where City of Hope comes in.
An international pioneer in integrated care, the Department of Supportive Care Medicine at City of Hope provides a multidisciplinary team of doctors, nurses and numerous other caregivers who work together to assess what cancer patients and their families need, and then fulfill those needs. Now, the department is teaching other hospitals and caregivers how to do the same.
In 2012 and 2013, the National Cancer Institute awarded two five-year grants – of $1.5 million and $1.6 million – to City of Hope’s Sheri & Les Biller Patient and Family Resource Center to, essentially, help change the world of supportive care. The first grant was intended to fund the training of cancer health care and administrative professionals in how to build and enhance supportive care programs. The second grant was meant to train the same population of professionals in how to implement comprehensive biopsychosocial screening programs.
These training programs are now well underway. » Continue Reading
When considering cancer risk, categories like “women’s cancers” and “men’s cancers” may not matter. A complete medical history, especially of first-degree relatives, must be considered when evaluating risk.
A new study drives home that fact. Published in the journal Cancer, the study found a link between a family history of prostate cancer and an increased risk of breast cancer in women. The study, one of the largest efforts to examine the link between these cancers, found that women with a father, brother or son with prostate cancer may have a 14 percent higher risk of breast cancer than women without that family history. Women with a family history of both prostate and breast cancer appear to have a 78 percent greater risk of developing breast cancer, according to the study.
The researchers, from the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute at Wayne State University in Detroit, cautioned that their study found a connection, not a cause-and-effect relationship. Nonetheless, it gives food for thought to how women should think comprehensively when assessing individual cancer risk.
How does the environment affect our health? Specifically, how does it affect our risk of cancer?
City of Hope physicians and researchers recently answered those questions in an Ask the Experts event in Corona, California, explaining the underlying facts about how the environment can affect our health.
Moderator Linda H. Malkas, Ph.D., associate chair and professor of molecular and cellular biology, led the discussion, giving voice to the concerns that many people have about the environment and cancer risk, and asking tough questions of the panelists.
Breast cancer treatment can damage a woman’s ability to become pregnant, making the impact on fertility one of the key factors that many consider when choosing a therapy regimen. Now a study has found that breast cancer patients treated with a hormone-blocking drug in addition to chemotherapy were less likely to experience ovarian failure and more likely to have successful pregnancies.
Although the study on breast cancer and fertility has some limitations, it could suggest an alternative strategy for women who hope to become pregnant after breast cancer treatment, said George Somlo, M.D., a professor of breast oncology and staff physician at City of Hope. He was not involved in the study, but provided outside expert commentary in an interview with Medpage Today.
The Cleveland Clinic study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that women who received goserelin – a synthetic version of a naturally occurring hormone – during chemotherapy experienced an 8 percent ovarian failure rate, compared to 22 percent among women who did not receive the drug. In addition, 21 percent of women who received goserelin became pregnant within five years post-treatment, compared to 11 percent of women in the control group during the same time frame.
Somlo elaborated on his perspective in this Q and A. » Continue Reading
The breakthroughs that have revolutionized cancer treatment, transforming cancer in many cases to a very manageable and even curable disease, started out as just ideas.
“I will often tell patients there’s no therapy we’re using to help them that wasn’t derived from somebody’s idea in some laboratory, working late into the night,” said Stephen J. Forman, M.D., Francis & Kathleen McNamara Distinguished Chair in Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation at City of Hope. “There’s a challenge, I think, maintaining a certain level of funding so that all good ideas get a chance to see if they’re going to help someone.”
The commitment to that ingenuity, along with the ability to seamlessly and safely bring those ideas from the laboratory to the patient, are what set City of Hope apart. The challenges in translating medicine into practical benefit, the future of precision medicine, how the field of cancer treatment has evolved and the role of 101-year-old City of Hope were the topics recently on “Charlie Rose,” a nationally syndicated show on PBS and Bloomberg television.
City of Hope President and Chief Executive Officer Robert W. Stone, Provost and Chief Scientific Officer Steven T. Rosen, M.D., and Forman sat down with Rose in an interview that aired Feb. 25. » Continue Reading
Think twice before tossing out those hormone replacement pills. Although a new Lancet study suggests that hormone replacement therapy could increase a woman’s risk of ovarian cancer, a City of Hope expert urges women to keep this news in perspective.
Hormone replacement therapy is prescribed to help alleviate symptoms, such as hot flashes and night sweats, that can damage quality of life in menopausal women. The University of Oxford study found that women who used hormone replacement therapy for less than five years after menopause had a 40 percent higher risk of ovarian cancer than other women.
However, while the statistical finding is an important one, the study was not designed to definitively show that the hormone therapy caused the increased ovarian cancer risk. No mechanism has been identified.
Robert Morgan, M.D., co-director of the gynecological cancers program at City of Hope, said that women do indeed face a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer when using hormone replacement, but that the overall risk for the general population is very low. Over 21,000 women are expected to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer this year, according to the American Cancer Society, and over 14,000 are expected to die of the disease.
“The fact alone of a slight increased risk of ovarian cancer in women taking hormone therapy won’t, and shouldn’t, impact treatment decisions,” Morgan said in a HealthDay interview. » Continue Reading