As the founder of the nonprofit hpvandme.ORG, Pamela Tom is committed to increasing awareness about the dangers of infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Here, as a guest blogger on Breakthoughs, she shares her experience with HPV – and also her interview with City of Hope’s Ellie Maghami, M.D., chief of head and neck surgery.
By Pamela Tom
It’s been nearly a year since actor Michael Douglas announced that he believed that his oral cancer was HPV-related. Headlines fade, but the epidemic continues to grow.
Did you know that the HPV head and neck cancers in the U.S. will surpass the number of cervical cancer cases by 2020? That’s what the American Society of Clinical Oncologists predicted in its 2011 study, yet the public is largely unaware of this growing epidemic.
You might think that’s unfortunate but that it’s unlikely that HPV oropharyngeal cancer would affect you or someone you know. Think again.
A growing number of middle-aged, nonsmoking men (as well as women) are being diagnosed with HPV cancer of the mouth, tonsils or throat. I know because they write to me at hpvandme.org, a nonprofit organization that’s building awareness about HPV infection and HPV throat cancer. I also know because my husband was one of them.
A year and a half ago, my husband, Jeff, said he was having difficulty swallowing and it felt like there was a lump in his throat. When our family doctor had no answers after three visits, I insisted that Jeff go to a head and neck specialist who immediately spotted a large tumor at the base of his tongue – a place that’s undetectable by an ordinary oral examination. » Continue Reading
Men with prostate cancer face tough choices: when, or even if, to treat their cancer; what procedure to use; and how to balance their chosen treatment with their quality of life. Now, a new multicenter clinical trial seeks to offer men another option – one that physicians hope will treat prostate cancers with fewer side effects.
As part of that trial, City of Hope has become the first center in the nation to perform a new procedure using a focused beam of ultrasound energy to “ablate” the prostate cancer. Traditional treatment approaches, such as surgery and radiation, are potentially very effective in treating prostate cancer – but some men are left facing incontinence or impotence. (Men with very slow-growing cancers may choose a “watch and wait” approach, monitoring the cancer and determining appropriate interventions if they become necessary.) » Continue Reading
People with what’s known as ALK-positive lung cancer usually develop resistance to crizotinib, the primary drug used to treat their disease. The drug’s limitations are all the more significant because its approval in 2011 was considered a crucial advance against this type of nonsmall cell lung cancer.
“This makes new therapies for ALK-positive lung cancer essential to improving and prolonging life for these patients,” said Karen L. Reckamp, M.D. , M.S., co-director of City of Hope’s Lung Cancer and Thoracic Oncology Program., in an interview with MedPage Today.
Those new therapies are on the way. A new study suggests that one drug in particular shows promise in the fight against this type of cancer. The study, published online this week in the New England Journal of Medicine(NEJM), included 122 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer linked to a genetic mutation in the ALK gene. Of those, 83 had relapsed on crizotinib (Xalkori).
In the NEJM study, the new drug ceritinib was found effective among 56 percent of patients who had relapsed on crizotinib. It was found effective among 62 percent of those who hadn’t taken crizotinib. » Continue Reading
John Rossi has been studying HIV — and how to help patients beat it — almost as long as scientists have known about the virus. His expertise is globally recognized, and it recently helped net him a five-year, $3.3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The grant extends the NIH’s funding of Rossi’s work to more than two decades; it will support his efforts to develop a practical way to deliver a gene therapy to HIV patients.
The gene therapy uses a form of RNA, a close genetic cousin to DNA, to stop the virus from hijacking and destroying the immune system’s infection-fighting T cells. In fact, Rossi, who holds the Lidow Family Research Chair and is chair of the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, and his City of Hope colleagues have already conducted the only clinical trial to test this therapeutic RNA in patients.
Up until now, this treatment approach, called RNAi-based therapy, has only been available to HIV-positive patients with lymphoma who were undergoing stem cell transplantation. The transplant regimen is a necessary part of the process.
“For the vast majority of HIV patients to benefit from RNAi-based therapies, we need to find another way to deliver it to them that doesn’t require transplantation,” Rossi said. » Continue Reading
The exact causes of colorectal cancer are not completely understood, but many facts about the disease are well-known – as are ways to reduce one’s risk. In our “Ask the Experts: Colon Health” presentation (above), City of Hope physicians provide those facts.
The video, recorded live, features colorectal cancer experts Donald David, M.D., chief of gastroenterology; Stephen M. Sentovich, M.D., M.B.A., clinical professor of surgery; and Marwan Fakih, M.D., co-director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Program. They share their knowledge about colon cancer, including the importance of screenings, the risk factors for colon cancer, and details on colon cancer treatments.
Some highlights from the presentation:
- Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death in the U.S.
- Colorectal cancer usually starts as a polyp and progresses over a period of years to cancer.
- Having a colonoscopy is the single most important factor in reducing the risk of developing colon cancer.
- Colonoscopy and removal of the polyp can be done in the same day; removal of a tumor with a “hemorrhoid type” operation can be done the same day or it might require an overnight stay. » Continue Reading
E-cigarettes have ignited plenty of debate recently, especially as cities have begun to ban public use of the devices, just as they’ve done with traditional cigarettes. Although users say e-cigarettes, or e-cigs, can help smokers quit, evidence that the devices are effective has been unconvincing – and a new study has failed to come to their defense.
The study, published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association, confirms the suspicions of many experts that e-cigarettes are not associated with greater rates of quitting cigarettes or even cutting back on smoking. The study found that women, younger adults and people with less education are more likely to use e-cigarettes and that, based on self-reported data after a year of use, the devices are not associated with quitting or even with a change in cigarette consumption.
“They try to market e-cigarettes as alternatives, but they are nicotine-delivery devices,” said Brian Tiep, M.D., director of pulmonary rehabilitation and smoking cessation at City of Hope. “We don’t know what else they’re bringing into our bodies. When cigarettes were first presented as a product that should be legal, everyone believed they were harmless. Given our present knowledge, if they were introduced for the first time now, we would say, ‘Of course these should not be legal products.’ Now we have an ‘alternative’ that has at least one of the same ingredients – and that’s the ingredient they get addicted to, nicotine.” » Continue Reading
According to the National Cancer Institute, getting colonoscopies at recommended intervals (for most people, this means starting at age 50 and every 10 years thereafter if the results are normal) can reduce colorectal cancer deaths by up to 70 percent. This is possible because the procedure can catch the cancer in its earlier stages, when it’s more treatable. Additionally, colonoscopies can detect and remove precancerous growths called polyps before they become malignant.
Despite the proven benefits, many people still put off getting a colonoscopy. Data from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that 40 percent of Americans are not getting screened for colorectal cancer in accordance to recommended guidelines.
And according to Donald David, M.D., clinical professor and chief at City of Hope’s Division of Gastroenterology, many reasons people have for delaying or avoiding this lifesaving test are pure myths.
A cancer diagnosis and its treatment can be overwhelming. It’s normal for patients to experience burdensome physical symptoms and psychological distress, both from their disease and from the cancer treatment. Sometimes these symptoms require specialized care in addition to primary cancer treatment.
Dawn Gross, M.D., Ph.D., the Arthur M. Coppola Family Chair in Supportive Care Medicine and chair of City’s of Hope’s Department of Supportive Care Medicine, explains that medical treatment isn’t just about a cancer directed therapy. It’s also about the total care of body, mind and spirit. The inclusion of supportive and palliative care in cancer treatment can provide patients not only with a better quality of life, but also a happier one, she says.
What is supportive and palliative care medicine?
Supportive medicine is another name often used to encompass palliative care medicine. Supportive medicine is aggressive care focused on comfort, and is designed to support patients and their families experiencing a life-altering illness. It is intended to be delivered simultaneously with all other forms of medical care. By discovering what people wish, we can deliver the care they want. In order to achieve this, we must first focus on alleviating all forms of suffering, including physical, mental and spiritual distress. This then allows for patient and family goals of care to be explored and supported. » Continue Reading
Cancer treatments obviously save lives, but sometimes at a high price, with side effects that can have a lasting impact. One of those side effects is a mental cloudiness often referred to as “chemo brain.”
Chemo brain is clinically known as cancer-related cognitive dysfunction – mental changes that occur in cancer patients during or after treatment. Patients can have trouble concentrating, remembering details like names and dates, and multitasking; they might also need longer to complete tasks and they can experience memory lapses, according to the American Cancer Society.
Although patients and caregivers have noticed chemo brain effects for sometime, serious research on the subject has only recently begun. City of Hope oncology nurse Denice Economou, R.N., M.N., C.N.S., A.O.C.N., discusses some of the causes of chemo brain and what patients can do about the condition.
What causes chemo brain?
Multiple factors contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. Chemo brain may be related to chemotherapy, and it is known that certain drugs are at higher risk. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil have a high association with increased risk, but depending on the dosing, the level of dysfunction may be minimal or moderate to severe. Higher doses and longer treatment regimens increase the exposure to the drugs and increase the probability of developing chemo brain.
Premenopausal women experiencing estrogen and progesterone reductions also experience changes that include memory loss and reduced ability to maintain focus or attention. Medications such as pain medications, sedatives and anti-nausea medications may also contribute.